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Library > Cichlids > General Articles > Taxonomy of Cichlids >Sub Family Etroplinae > Genera Paretroplus > Paretroplus dambabe
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Species Paretroplus dambabe  
 
Scientific classification
     
Image Credit : Dave Tourle
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata
Class : Actinopterygii
Order : Perciformes
Suborder : Labroidei
Family : Cichlidae
Sub Family : Etroplinae
Genus : Paretroplus
Subfamilies
 
Morphometric Data
   
Total Length (inches) 5.60
Standard Length (inches) 4.80
   
Measurements as a % of Standard Length
 
Fork _length
Pre_ anal _length
Pre dorsal_length
Pre_ pelvic_length
Pre_pectrol_length
Body_ depth
52.80
Head_length
30.70
Eye diameter (HL)
31.30
Pre_orbital_length (HL)
Snout_ length
43.70
Head_width
16.70
Inter orbital_width (HL)
35.50
Pre orbital_depth (HL)
Caudal _peduncle_depth
16.70
Caudal _peduncle_length
6.40
Pectoral _fin_length
21.60
Pelvic_ fin_length
21.60
Length _of_last_ dorsal_ fin_spine
15.40
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Scientific Name : Paretroplus dambabe
Common Name : Damba. Kotso.
Geo Origin : AFRICA, Other African, Africa: Madagascar.
Conservation Status : Endangered
Diet : Carnivore
Gender Differences : Mono morphic
Breeding : Substrate Spawner
Temperament : Aggressive
Con specific Temperament : Aggressive
Standard Length : 4.8"
Total Length : 5.6"
Water Hardness: ph range ; 6.5 to 8
Difficulty ; 4
 

Introduction

Paretroplus dambabe is a medium sized fish in its genus.
It has a standard length of 4.8" and total length of 5.6".

Paretroplus dambabe was for long confused with P petiti and was described as a separate species only in 2002.

Taxonomy
(Click for details of Cichlid taxonomy)

Paretroplus dambabe was first described by Sparks in 2002 .

The genus Paretroplus is further divided into several groups called clades.
P dambabe belongs to a clade consisting of compressed Paretroplus referred as Clade I, which comprises all deep-bodied and essentially disk-shaped members of Paretroplus
The other members of this clade are P. maromandia,, P. menarambo, P. macalatus, P. petiti, and P. polyactis.

The genus name Paretroplus comes from the Greek 'para' meaning 'on the side of'; in taxonomy it is commonly used in generic names to express similarity or relatedness
Hence the genus name literally means 'next to Etroplus' and signifies the close relationship these two genus have.

The species name dambabe translates in local language as "Big damba". Damba is the generic name for Paretroplus cichlids in Madagascar.

Description
(Click for description of fish body parts)

Paretroplus dambabe is a deep bodied and medium sized member of its clade.

It often gets large frequently exceeds 10 inches and specimens up to 16 inches have been seen.

The body is laterally compressed and deep.
It has a standard length of 4.8" and a body depth of 52.8 % of SL.

Head is blunt and steeply sloping in lateral view, head length is 29.8% of SL and head width is 16.0 % of SL.

Predorsal profile is rounded and convex , it is specially pronounced in larger individuals.

Caudal peduncle is short, deep, and laterally compressed.

Total vertebral count is 31 or 33, 14-15 vertebra on body (pre caudal) and 16-18 on tail.

Lower and upper jaws are similar (isognathous).
There is a single row of thin, flat, single cusp teeth in both upper and lower jaws.

Teeth are laterally expanded, flattened at crown.
In upper jaw, tooth on either side of pre maxillary symphysial are greatly enlarged, other teeth graded in size laterally.

Lower-jaw teeth at symphysial are not enlarged, but reduced in size compared to adjacent lateral teeth, presumably to accommodate enlarged upper symphysial teeth.

Teeth in upper jaw number 6-8 on each side, and total 12-16.
Teeth in lower jaw number 3-5 on each side, and total 06 –10.
Teeth in both upper and lower jaws are frequently irregularly spaced and graded in size laterally.

Like all cichlids, P. dambabe has pharyngeal teeth.
Upper and lower pharyngeal tooth plates are well developed with strong teeth.

Body is covered with large, overlapping, cycloid scales.
Dorsal and Anal fin bases have well-developed ridges of scales.
Pelvic auxiliary scale are present and well developed.

Lateral-line contains 36–38 scales.

Chest scales are slightly smaller than lateral body scales and weakly embedded.
Scales along ventral midline are smallest.
There are 4-6 rows of scales on cheek.
Opercle, subopercle, and interopercle are scaled.
Snout, and region near eyes do not have any scales.

Scales on caudal fin are small in size and extending posteriorly about 3/4 length of fin on dorsal and ventral lobes, and 1/3 length of fin medially.

Dorsal fin is placed slightly posterior of vertical line of Pectoral fin base and has XVI–XVII spines, 17 –19 soft rays.
Soft Dorsal fin is weakly pointed.

Anal fin has VIII –X spines, 13 –15 soft rays.
Soft anal fin is weakly pointed.

Caudal fin is concavely curved but not forked ( emarginate) , crescent shaped,upper and lower lobes are broad and more-or-less rounded.

Pectoral fin is broad and rounded at the end .

Pelvic fins extend slightly beyond anal-fin origin.

Coloration :-

Ground color of body is grayish, grayish pink, or bluish green .

Body is generally darker dorsally, but sometimes uniform in coloration.

There are alternating light and dark horizontal striping pattern evident on flank.
Six or seven broad, vertical dark olive bars extend from from region of trunk to caudal peduncle.
These bars are very obvious in juveniles, becoming less conspicuous to nearly indistinguishable in large adults.

A variable amount of vivid red pigmentation (5 spotting) is present on flanks, particularly below upper branch of lateral line.

Some individuals have each flank scale outlined in red, whereas in others, red pigmentation restricted to region below upper branch of lateral line.

Nape and region below anterior spinous dorsal is golden in juveniles.

There is a black inter orbital bar present in adults, this is dark golden in juveniles.

Dorsal and anal fins are uniformly black proximal to base.
Soft dorsal and anal fins have white distal margin.

Caudal fin is orangish at the beginning , black on median portion of fin, and with white terminal band.

Pelvic fin is black with white leading edge.

Pectoral fin is reddish orange proximal to base, white distally.

Young fish have a blotchy and mottled pigment pattern.

 

Geographical distribution

The type specimen of P dambabe was collected from Lake Kinkony.
Lake Kinkony is a large shallow floodplain located to the southwest of Majunga in the northwest part of island.
It is extremely shallow and turgid and is characteristic of basins in northwestern Madagascar.

Several euryhaline and invasive marine species, including anguillids, carangids, Scatophagus, and Chanos, also inhabit the lake.

The Lake Kinkony basin is moderately to highly disturbed and degraded.
A substantial portion of the basin has been converted for rice cultivation and for grazing of livestock, and little original riparian vegetation remains in the basin.

According to local fishermen questioned in the mid-1990s, the species had suffered a dramatic decline in abundance in the preceding decade.

Lake Kinkony is subjected to severe fishing pressure, especially from seasonal migrant fishermen who supply markets in the capital, Antananarivo.

Regrettably, de Rham and Nourissat (2004: 93–96) report that P. dambabe is most certainly extinct in Lake Kinkony, but that in 1997 populations of P. dambabe were also discovered in two smaller satellite lakes, Andranobe and lake de la Dirge, situated near the town of Antongomena.

Lake de la Digue, an artificial lake used to store water for rice irrigation, still harbored a population of P. dambabe.

Another member of Paretroplus, P. kieneri, also occurred in Lake Kinkony, which is the type locality for this species, but is also now reported to be extinct in the basin. In the mid-1990s, P. kieneri was extremely rare in Lake Kinkony, whereas a few specimens of P. dambabe could still be collected, but with substantial effort

Habitat :

P dambabe was collected from Lake Kinkony situated in Northwest madagascar.

Lake Kinkony is a large shallow floodplain located to the southwest of Majunga in the northwest part of island.
It is extremely shallow and turgid and is characteristic of basins in northwestern Madagascar.

Conservation Status :

IUCN Red list shows status of Paretroplus dambabe as "Endangered ".

This species is known from the Lake Kinkony in northwest Madagascar.

The Lake Kinkony basin is moderately to highly disturbed and degraded.
A substantial portion of the basin has been converted for rice cultivation and for grazing of livestock, and little original riparian vegetation remains in the basin.

According to local fishermen questioned in the mid-1990s, the species had suffered a dramatic decline in abundance in the preceding decade.

Lake Kinkony is subjected to severe fishing pressure, especially from seasonal migrant fishermen who supply markets in the capital, Antananarivo.

Given its restricted range (extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km²), fragmented population and continued pressure through catchment deforestation, overfishing and exotic introduced species, it has been assessed as Endangered.

Habitat loss/decline due to deforestation continues and the species is also impacted by competition and predation from introduced exotic fish species. The species is assessed as Endangered.

Major Threats:

Habitat destruction, overfishing, and competition from a number of exotic species, primarily tilapiine cichlids and the Asian snakehead are major threats faced all madagascar Cichlids.

Feeding

Radiological examination of the guts have revealed that the primary diet is small crustaceans.

It is carnivore and should be given corresponding diet.
Frozen shrimp, mussels, live snails can be give.

Tank Size & setup :

The fish frequently reaches 10" and specimens up to 16" have been reported.
Hence a large tank about 6X2X2 or larger is ideal.

A group of 6 can be kept, this will allow them to breed when they reach maturity.

The hardscape should consist of plenty of bogwood and river worn boulders.

These fish like to sift substrate for food so sand is best.

Water Parameters:

They are quiet adaptable but should be kept in hard alkaline water.

All Madagascar cichlids are very intolerant of pollutants so water changes should be consistent and large 30-40 % weekly.

Sexual Dimorphism:

There are no sexually dimorphic features apparent.

Breeding

Like most Madagascar cichlids P dambabe are slow growers and will take nearly 2 years to reach maturity.

A group of six is recommended so that pairs may form when fish reach maturity.

The eggs are laid and guarded by both parents.

Eggs hatch within few days and fry are free swimming in about a week.

 

 

Author/Credits

  Sandeep Raghuvanshi
     
Citations/Further Reading  

Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors:Fishbase, World Wide Web electronic publication.www.fishbase.org, version (10/2013),2013, ISBN :

ITIS: Integrated Taxonomic Information System, http://www.itis.gov,, ISBN :

John S. Sparks:Phylogeny of the Cichlid subfamily Etroplinae and the Taxonomic revision of the Malagasy Cichlid Genus Paretroplus,2008,Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History ISBN :